Orifice plate expansion factor

orifice plate expansion factor Orifice plates are most commonly used to measure flow rates in pipes, when the fluid is single-phase (rather than being a mixture of gases and liquids, or of liquids and solids) and well-mixed, the flow is continuous rather than pulsating, the fluid An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate, for reducing pressure or for restricting flow (in the latter two cases it is often called a restriction plate). 5 Q =C0A0 (gH) (1) where C 0 = orifice coefficient A 0 = area of orifice opening (m 2) H = head loss at entry to continuation pipe (m) (Figure 2 ε=Expansion factor (1 for liquids) π=3. Orifice Plate Calculations. 18. Since I need to calculate the orifice size and pressure drop, I put an estimation of orifice size and trying to calculate the pressure drop from the equation based on the equation in ISO5167-2, qm = ACY (2 x density x dP / 1 - beta ration^4)^1/2. The orifice meter consists of a flat orifice plate with a circular hole drilled in it. The expansion device is also used as a liquid refrigerant metering system, balancing the refrigerant flow rate with the evaporator load condition. 2. P. It is obvious from the equation, that, there are few factors that are difficult to measure. Common arrangements are: Corner tappings : Tapping points are at the flange. SwRI project no. , A. Suitable for liquid, gas and steam flow measurement. The concentric orifice plate flow Calculating Flow Through Orifice. Equations (2) and (3) are straightforward derivations from the orifice meter equations described in detail by McCabe et al. For other materials the temperature expansion factor must be known. References AGA Report No. ρ = Density of flui d . The thickness must be sufficient to prevent the plate from bending under operating conditions. In the study, the least square method is adopted to analyze the experimental data, and a formula to quickly calculate the damping coefficient for the dual-chamber air springs Sep 02, 2011 · This entry was posted in Pipe Flow Measurement and tagged ASME MFC-14M:2001, expansion coefficient, ISO 5167, ISO 5167-2:2003, orifice coefficient, orifice diameter, orifice meter, S. Type of primary device: FlowCalc32 CE can calculate orifice plates with corner tapping, orifice plates with flange tapping, orifice plates with D-D/2 tapping, ISA-1932 nozzles, venturi nozzles 1 Jul 27, 2014 · Y = fluid expansion factor referenced to upstream static pressure d = orifice plate bore or nozzle/Venturi throat diameter at flowing temperature, in inches = d ( 1 + Φ ( T - T ) ), where important factor, and the expense of any one of the common flow meters is not justified. Fpb = Base pressure factor = 14. Y orifice expansion factor p ratio of throat or orifice diameter to pipe diameter y ratio of specific heats 77 venturi efficiency p density Subscripts: 0 orifice V venturi 1 upstream location 2 3 location downstream of venturi downstream location for orifice case or throat location for venturi case TESTS AND APPARATUS Description of System Y1 = Gas expansion factor (=1 for liquids) d = Orifice bore diameter . meter tubes. Paddle Type Orifice Plates. For nominal pipe sizes 2" or larger. An orifice plate is a device which allows the user to calculate the axial velocity (and so the mass flow) of a fluid, within a pipe. S. For example, it is used in power stations, labs or airplanes (Pitot Tubes)! In this case, I've built the model: "D and D/2 tappings". An orifice plate is a thin plate with a hole in it, usually placed in a pipe. When a fluid (either liquid or gaseous) passes through the orifice, its pressure builds up slightly upstream of the orifice. and 6-in. 65. The expansion factor, which allows for the change in the density of an ideal gas as it expands isentropically, is given by: For values of less than 0. 1 Orifice Plate Coefficient of Discharge (Cd) This coefficient has been determined empirically for flange-tapped orifice meters. Application. 73PSI/Pb ISO 5167-1:2003 provides an equation for the orifice discharge coefficient calculation, Cd, as a function of Beta Ratio, Reynolds number, L1 and L2, where L1 is the distance of the upstream pressure tap from the orifice plate and L2 is the distance of the downstream pressure tap from the orifice plate. It is a thin plate with a hole in the middle that isusually placed in a pipe where fluid flows. Expansion Factor 1. It may be evaluated from the equation FA = 1 -t- 2a@t , where Q: is the coefficient of linear expansim of the orifice plate material and At is the difference between the Flat plate, sharp edge orifice ISO 5167 Orifice Plate An orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. These four holes are in parallel. The expansion factor (Y) is:- where Turbine Meter (0. The orifice plate in accordance with embodiments of the present invention is described with reference to the above drawings. It Y = gas expansion factor, calculated under API 14. The Orifice Plate. It In reality account must be taken of the expansion factor of the orifice plate installation, which is dependent upon the ratio of the diameters of the orifice plate and the pipe, and the pressure of the fluid. The primary element is defined as the orifice plate, the orifice plate holder with its associated differential pressure sensing taps, the meter tube, and flow conditioner, if used. 2 (at least - standards vary) but for incompressible fluids, including most liquids represents the traditional, expansion and PPL Figures 1 & 2 show an orifice meter with instrumentation sketch and the (simplified) pressure fluctuation through the meter body. In For other materials the temperature expansion factor must be known. 4 up to 0. This pressure drop is measured using a differential pressure transmitter and can be used to calculate the flow rate. These parameters are usually expressed as functions of the orifice meter geometry and the flow’s Reynolds number. This orifice plate is mostly placed in a flanged joint. Again the formula for evaluating it, comes from empirical data, for example for a orifice plate, the formula used by ISO5167-1:1991 section 8. [citation needed]Application. 334. The coefficient of a meter depends on the position of the taps. In flanged pipe systems the thin-plate orifice may be inserted at a joint with little or no disturbance of existing piping; and in long pipe lines the loss in head caused by the orifice Multi-hole orifice plate is similar to centric orifice plate however, in its disc there are more orifice holes. 05–0. 1 Conventional method [4] The expansion factor Y allows using for compressible fluids the same equation structure valid for incompressible fluids. 0F in the nominal temperature range changes Fa by [ ]+,c but the change in steam generator thermal output is negligible. Available for line sizes from 1/2˝ to 24˝, the Series TE orifice plate can be used with gases, liquids, expansion for the orifice plate material, type 304 stainless steel. The axial maximum magnitude of the velocity and pressure appear around the orifice plate and both diminish beyond that. 142xxx VDI 2041 – orifice plates - amendment to ISO 5167 BS 1042 - English standard for orifices, nozzles and venturi . hw: differential pressure across orifice plate Pf: separator static pressure Fu : unit conversion factor Fb : basic orifice factor Fg : specific gravity factor Y2 : expansion factor Ftf : flowing temperature factor Fpv : super-compressibility factor Daniel orifice plate meter 12 Oct 18, 2013 · 1. Care shall be taken in the design of the orifice plate Oct 21, 2021 · Conditioning Orifice Plates Standard Orifice Plates; Orifice Bore: They have four equally space bores or holes on the plate: They have one central bore: Beta Ratio: Beta ratio is either 0. Flange tappings : Tapping points are 1" upstream and downstream of orifice plate in the flanges. Flow through an annulus is more complicated than flow through an orifice so empiraical data seems to be needed. It has the same nature of the expansion factor utilized in the equations of the throttling type devices (orifices, nozzles or venturi) for the measure of the flow rate. N – Is a unit conversion factor and is a constant. (For liquids Y =1. One of the most important physics law involved in this process is the Flat plate, sharp edge orifice ISO 5167 Orifice Plate An orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. 401. An uncertainty of 5. , I. Orifice mass flow calculations provided by ASME PTC-19. Expansibility factor, also called expansion factor, for sharp-edged orifice plates with corner, flange or D and D/2 tappings: if : 5. operating temperature and pressure limited by material and flange. 0% in Fa for type 304 stainless steel is used in this analysis. Does 2. Topical report GRI-04/0042. It uses the same principle as a Venturi nozzle, namely The damping coefficient of this type of a damping plate can be quickly calculated as long as the circular orifice number and tightness factor are substituted in Eq. Also, gas is considered as ideal. Minimum meter run as per ISO 5167-2. 2 General The axial plane cross-section and -symbols of a standard orifice plate is shown in Fig. It effects of cavitation and plate thickness for small diameter ratio orifice plates were evaluated in a 100 mm diameter test section of a water flow calibration facility. However, it requires me to compute the gas expansion factor from ε Expansion factor (for compressible media, only) d Inside diameter of the orifice plate Δp Differential pressure ρ1 Density of the meas. 9 deg C. (15). 1,2,3 and 4. 3, Subsection 5. RTJ type orifice plates may be machined in one piece, or alternatively from two pieces, with an orifice plate screwed onto a carrier ring/gasket. 5-2004, ASME MFC-3M-2004, ASME Fluid Meters, and ISO 5167 are compared for W-8’s atmospheric inlet orifice plate. 65 for an orifice plate) β = d/D ε = expansibility factor (for gas only, for liquid epsilon = 1) D = pipe diameter (m) d = orifice diameter (m) ρ = fluid density upstream the orifice plate (kg/m3) ΔP = pressure drop through the orifice plate (Pa) The expansibility factor, for gases, can be calculated Diameter of orifice e - expansion factor Coefficient used for compressible flow calculation C - coefficient of discharge Coefficient used for orifice plate based on ISO 5167 R eD - upstream Reynolds number Reynolds number calculated in front of the orifice K - resistance coefficient Fsl = Slope factor (another polynomial function of the orifice plate’s β ratio and Reynolds number), appropriate for flange taps. For this material, a change of ± 1 . Stainless steel material standard, others available as needed. Variable orifice plate technology is sold as an all-in-one package, displacing multiple products & systems, including air terminals, venturi valves, flow measurement devices, IAQ dampers, VAV controllers, and actuators. It uses the same principle as a Venturi nozzle, namely ε Factor of Expansion Fh Puncture of drain or respiration β (d/D) Relation between the diameter of the orifice and the diameter of the tube α Flow coefficient d Diameter of the Orifice (m) D Diameter of the Tubing (m) a Area of the orifice (m²) *Discharge coefficient for concentrical orifice plates with D < 50 mm. For information on flow resistance provided by an orifice plate refer Expansion/Contractions/Orifice Plates Pitot tubes are specially designed probes inserted into pipes to establish the flow velocity at fixed points in the pipe bore. medium before the orifice at operating temperature qm Mass flow rate qv Volume flow rate The flow coefficient C is a function of the diameter ratio β, the Reynolds number Re, The expansion device is also used as a liquid refrigerant metering system, balancing the refrigerant flow rate with the evaporator load condition. d. in “Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Fifth Edition,” McGraw-Hill, Inc. thick orifice plates for line sizes 2-inch though 6 inch and ASME classes less than 900. 6 ) Gas Expansion Factor include: Venturi, standard concentric orifice plate, V-cone, and wedge flow meters shown in Fig. Paddle Orifice Plates are used with raised-face orifice flanges for measurement applications and installed between standard ASME flanges for restriction applications. 3 (1985), Section 5 (incorporated by reference, see § 3175. 75 percent mass flow except for a few cases. It What is an orifice plate? An orificeplate is a device used formeasuring flow rate. Traditional orifice meters read the inlet pressure (P 1) from a pressure port (1) directly upstream of the plate, and the differential pressure (∆P t) Jun 05, 2012 · E = Velocity of approach factor (dimensionless),, corrects for the change in the flow constriction shape with various beta ratio plates Y = Expansion Factor (dimensionless), Correct for the change in density from the pressure tap to the orifice bore in gas measurement. There are in general three methods for placing the taps. 30) d = orifice diameter, in inches Z b = supercompressibility at base pressure and temperature commonly used for orifice plates, flow nozzles, and venturi tubes Gas Expansion Factor ( k=1. Repeatability of measurement of 0. Fanning Friction Factor vz D Re Flow rate Pressure Drop Data may be organized in terms of two dimensionless parameters: 2 0 2 1 4 1 z L v D L P P f 12 (This is a definition) (This comes from applying the definition of friction factor to pipe flow) é Ldensity R í Laverage velocity & Ltrue pipe inner diameter ä Lviscosity : L 4 F L Å Special Features of the orifice plate, flange and annular chamber. Orifice plates and nozzles are also used as flow balancing and/or limiting devices. To accurately use this coefficient, the orifice meter must be Calculation of expansion factor. 25, approaches 0 and the last bracketed term in the above equation approaches 1. orifice plate at the entry to the continuation pipe. Thus, the orifice coefficient should be dependent on the different conditions . The Venturi flow meter obtains a pressure differential by constricting the flow area and therefore increasing the velocity at the constriction, which creates a lower pressure according to Bernoulli’s Theorem. 1 %. 65 for all pipe sizes. A. A diagram of an orifice plate is shown in Fig. To resolve this, let us closely examine each factor. NOTES: Using a K Factor to model performance of an Orifice You can represent an orifice in a Pipe Flow Expert system by using a Fitting with a specific K factor if you know the K factor that represents the flow versus pressure loss performance of your orifice. units by Harlan Bengtson. It An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate, for reducing pressure or for restricting flow (in the latter two cases it is often called a restriction plate). The overall pressure loss in the pipe due to an orifice plate is lower than the measured pressure, typically by a factor of . N. com An orifice plate is a device that is used for the measurement of flow rate for reducing pressure or for the restricting flow. It is apparently simple to construct, being made of a metal plate with an orifice that is inserted between flanges with pressure tappings formed in the wall of the pipe. The equation for expansibility factor for orifice plates. . 3. Thus, for the large majority of orifice plate installations: Y2 = Expansion factor (downstream tap) Zb = Compressibility at base conditions (Pb, Tb) Zf1 = Compressibility (upstream flowing conditions - Pf1, Tf) 6. Type of primary device: FlowCalc32 CE can calculate orifice plates with corner tapping, orifice plates with flange tapping, orifice plates with D-D/2 tapping, ISA-1932 nozzles, venturi nozzles 1 For orifice plate installation the discharge coefficient will vary depending on the location of the pressure tappings. In the study, the least square method is adopted to analyze the experimental data, and a formula to quickly calculate the damping coefficient for the dual-chamber air springs Orifice meter expansion factor tests in 4-in. Thus, for the large majority of orifice plate installations: orificeforwhich=0. 6 or AGA Report No. The plate and handle are a one-piece seamless design on 1/8-in. Description This calculates the flow rate measured through an orifice plate metering system. Fluid is considered as incompressible, so density (rho) and temperature (T) are constant through tube. 1241indicatedthatacurve,slightlyconvex upward,would be a little better than astraight fine, aresultin accord- ancewithotherobservations on orifices of diameter ratios belowabout The overall pressure loss in the pipe due to an orifice plate is lower than the measured pressure, typically by a factor of . 5; outlet loss coefficient of sudden expansion is 1). Conditioning Orifice Plates are designed with 2 standard bore Flat plate, sharp edge orifice ISO 5167 Orifice Plate An orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. 1. This flow condition is often encountered on gas plants, compressor stations and pipelines where orifice plates are commonly used as a cheap and convenient way to regulate blowdown and pressurising rates. ISO 5167-1:2003 provides an equation for the orifice discharge coefficient calculation, Cd, as a function of Beta Ratio, Reynolds number, L1 and L2, where L1 is the distance of the upstream pressure tap from the orifice plate and L2 is the distance of the downstream pressure tap from the orifice plate. Available in square edge, quarter circle/conical entrance, eccentric entrance, and segmental designs with raised face, flat face, or ring-type joint sealing faces. 4 or 0. 3 ratio of orifice plate to pipe diameter pressure of flowing gas (2) Our variable orifice plate technology is the most economical way to measure and control low fluid flows over a wide dynamic range. When a fluid (whether liquid or gaseous) passes through the orifice, its pressure builds up slightly upstream of the orifice:85–86 but as the fluid is forced to converge to pass through the hole, the velocity increases and the fluid pressure decreases. The inlet and outlet planes of the orifice plate must be parallel, and the angle between the inlet plane of the orifice plate and a normal to the tube axis must not exceed 1°. Max. -K003-2 (Metric Units) GENERAL : The method of the orifice plate calculations mentioned above is based on: “Principles and practice of flow meter engineering” by. Calculating Flow Through Orifice. It 6 Blackstone Valley Place Suite 401 Lincoln, RI 02865-1162 tel +1. The Series Te orifice plate flowmeter offers one-piece PTFE construction similar to the OP and PE Series orifice plates, which incorporate a unique holder or carrier ring containing metering taps and integral gaskets. Use of multi-hole orifice plate is limited by β = d/D, the orifice plate is made for β = 0. Mar 11, 2012 · temperature upstream: 65. It 1. Orifice plates are most commonly used to measure flow rates in pipes, when the fluid is single-phase (rather than being a mixture of gases and liquids, or of liquids and solids) and well-mixed, the flow is continuous rather than pulsating compressible fluids, an empirical expansion factor is applied to the discharge coefficient equation to adjust for the fluid density variation due to changes in pressure upstream and downstream of the orifice plate. The relative area of the orifice m should be in the range 0. G. The calculation can also be rearranged to solve the differential pressure across an orifice plate or the bore diameter. Numerical simulation of cavitation in an orifice has also been undertaken by several researchers. Primary flow elements for use with liquids, gases, and steam. M. This is discussed in Lenkei,A. Media-type: gas/ steam/liquid or water. The pattern of apertures in the orifice plate 4 shown in Fig. 25, β 4 approaches 0 and the last bracketed term in the above equation approaches 1. Orifice plate calculator can be used for calculation of: volumetric flow - Q mass flow - G Y is an expansion factor accounting for gas density fluctuation through the meter. expansion factor is used in calculating venturi mass flow rates for all helium conditions. In addition, for compressible fluids, an empirical expansion factor is applied to the discharge coefficient equation to adjust for the fluid density variation due to changes in pressure upstream and downstream of the orifice plate. and A. herzvalves. Recommended plate thicknesses for flow measurement plates are shown in the RTJ Orifice Sizing Chart. An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate, for reducing pressure or for restricting flow (in the latter two cases it is often called a restriction plate). Orifice plates have many uses: power generation, oil production, refining, water treatment and distribution, gas processing and transmission, chemical, and petrochemical industry. Oct 20, 2013 · Orifice plate calculator can be used for both liquids and gases. . 6 is the same as that in Fig. com Fax:01483502025 Website:www. In our example centrifugal chiller, the expansion device used is a set of 2 orifice plates. 64. Flat plate, sharp edge orifice ISO 5167 Orifice Plate An orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. Nov 02, 2021 · Nov 02, 2021 (The Expresswire) -- The “Orifice Plate Flowmeters Market” 2021 Research report will make detailed analysis mainly on in-depth research on the Flat plate, sharp edge orifice ISO 5167 Orifice Plate An orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. ) The terms Cd, Kr & KPPL represent the discharge coefficient, the expansion coefficient and the PPL coefficient respectively. The factor is entered as input data. 1 on page 22. Sep 06, 2018 · The orifice plate 4 shown in Fig. An orifice plate is also known as a diaphragm. Except for CSN, sealing surfaces of the orifice plates can be C o is the orifice plate coefficient, Y is an expansion factor typically applied to compressible fluids, and; M is the mass flow rate. 06584. Vorticity and flow velocity The damping coefficient of this type of a damping plate can be quickly calculated as long as the circular orifice number and tightness factor are substituted in Eq. Accuracy ≤ ±0. 6 has a rectangular cross-section and is used in a conduit with a rectangular cross-section. ∆P = Diff. com ® ® Although the orifice plate isthe recognized flowmeter for the measurement of natural gas and light hydrocarbon liquids, the orifice discharge coefficient equation inuse inthe international standard ISO 5167-1: 1991 (I) is based on data collected more than 50years ago. ProgressHouse,MoorfieldPoint,MoorfieldRoad SlyfieldIndEstate,Guildford,Surrey GU11RU Tel: 01483502211 e-mail:sales@herzvalves. Feb 04, 2021 · At the outlet the hole is made conical with an angle of half-opening 30–45°. 3 – Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids – Concentric, Square-Edged Orifice Meters – Part 1: […] Nov 08, 2010 · The calculation of compressible flow through orifice plates at high dP (critical flow) appears to be carried out incorrectly in most instances. Jul 27, 2014 · Y = fluid expansion factor referenced to upstream static pressure d = orifice plate bore or nozzle/Venturi throat diameter at flowing temperature, in inches = d ( 1 + Φ ( T - T ) ), where Flat plate, sharp edge orifice ISO 5167 Orifice Plate An orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. (Reference to Crane Technical Publication 410, inlet loss coefficient of sudden contraction is 0. This results in Calculating Flow Through Orifice. pressure acro ss the orifice . A number of discharge coefficient equations are used in different standards. Its value is a function of the beta ration, differential pressure, static Jun 03, 2019 · When an orifice plate is placed in a pipe carrying the fluid whose rate of flow is to be measured, the orifice plate causes a pressure drop which varies with the flow rate. We stock plates in 304 & 316 stainless steels and in 1/8" and 1/4" thicknesses; however, we The following notes explain how to model and size an orifice. Orifice PlateOrifice Plate Flow DataFlow Data Herz Valves UK Ltd. 5. E. LK Oct 15, 2007 · Y - Gas Expansion Factor, unitless C - Discharge Coefficient, unitless dP - Diff Press across orifice, lb/in^2 V - Specific Volume, ft^3/lb (aka 1/density) d1 - in, (page 7 refers to the i. Calculation of Expansion Factor. 1173 solutions@wyattflow. 5 is the loss coefficient of the orifice plate with 4 holes. Either a volumetric or mass flow rate may be determined, depending on the calculation associated with the orifice plate. 1170 fax +1. of the pipe rather than the orifice which is a little confusing itself) The best guess I have is the following: d1^2 is the remnant of the Area formula We manufacture our Series 500 Universal Orifice Plates, Series 520 Paddle Type Plates, Series 560 and 590 Ring Type Joint (RTJ) Holder Plates and Restriction Orifice Unions to meet or exceed standards set by A. 3, beta = 0. 5 % of actual flow rate. Special Features of the orifice plate, flange and annular chamber. Jun 05, 2012 · E = Velocity of approach factor (dimensionless),, corrects for the change in the flow constriction shape with various beta ratio plates Y = Expansion Factor (dimensionless), Correct for the change in density from the pressure tap to the orifice bore in gas measurement. -K003-1 (English Units) form B. Units of measure are both in SI and English system. There is a pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another just downstream. 3. Fc + Fsl = Cd = Discharge coefficient, appropriate for flange taps Y = Gas expansion factor (a function of β, differential pressure, static pressure, and specific heats). 35B4) p x 1. It Jul 14, 2017 · In fluid flow , friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” (named HEAD LOSS/ PRESSURE PERMANENT LOSS)that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s viscosity near the surface of the pipe or duct – This is one of Disadvantage of orifice plate on Piping system. The latest discharge coefficient C = coefficient of discharge (often 0. I. 2 ORIFICE PLATE The orifice plates used in the IFSMTF helium system are circular and concentric with the pipe centerline and have flat and parallel faces. Its value is a function of the beta ration, differential pressure, static Flat plate, sharp edge orifice ISO 5167 Orifice Plate An orifice plate is a device used for measuring the volumetric flow rate. Differences in expansion factor and discharge coefficient given by these standards give a variation of about ±0. SCOPE : This standard gives instructions for the use of Company orifice plate calculation sheets : form B. 3 FA, Plate Ekpnsion Fdctor This factor corrects lor orifice plate expansion due to temperature. Orifice plates are most commonly used to measure flow rates in pipes, when the fluid is single-phase (rather than being a mixture of gases and liquids, or of liquids and solids) and well-mixed, the flow is continuous rather than pulsating, the fluid The necessary expansion factor is used in . The entry loss is not then calculated from K 1V 2 / 2g using standard (default) values, but by using an orifice discharge equation, as follows: 0. The expansion factor Y, which allows for the change in the density of an ideal gas as it expands isentropically, is given by: [2] For values of β less than 0. At full load, a large amount of refrigerant is moving through the chiller. An orifice plate is a thin plate with a hole in it, which is usually placed in a pipe. , 5. Aug 05, 2016 · The orifice plate flowmeter, the most common of the differential pressure (DP) flowmeter family, is also one of the most common industrial flowmeters. 41 + 0. orifice plate expansion factor

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